Automobile

An automobile is a branch of vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electrical, electronic, software, and safety engineering as applied to the design, manufacture and operation of motorcycles, automobiles, and trucks and their respective engineering subsystems.


Technical Terms and their full form used in Automobile

Emissions norms in India



1. Basic Introduction of engine


Definition of Engine : 
A machine that converts any of various form of energy into mechanical force and motion. 
A mechanism which can serve as an energy source. 

Definition of Heat Engine :

In thermodynamics and engineering a device for producing motive power from heat. 

Engine Nomenclature :

Cylinder Bore (d): The working cylinder's nominal inner diameter is called the cylinder bore.
It usually expressed in millimetre (mm). Read more

2. Fuel-air Cycles :


Actual cycles and their analysis :
The actual cycle for IC engines differs from the fuel-air cycles and air-standard cycles in many respects. The actual cycle efficiency is much lower than the air-standard efficiency due to various losses occurring in the actual engine operation.

Comparison of air standard and actual cycles :

The change in the chemical composition of the working substance.
The variation of specific heats with temperature. Read more 


3. Lubrication System :


What is Lubrication? 
To supply lubricating oil between the moving parts is simply termed as lubrication. 
The function of lubricants is to reduce friction and heat. 

Additives for lubrication :
Anti-oxidant
Anti-corrosive agents
Pour point depressors
Viscosity index improvers  Read more

4. Ignition System :


What is the Ignition system?
An ignition system generates the electrical charge between the two electrodes of the spark plug to ignite a fuel-air mixture in a spark-ignition internal combustion engine. 

A requirement of ignition system : 

To provide good spark between the electrodes of the plugs at the correct timing.
It should work efficiently across the entire engine speed range. Read more

5. Injection system


What is the fuel injection system : 
Fuel-injection system is most vital the component in the working of CI engines. Fuel-injection system is commonly used in CI engine. In present gasoline injection system is also coming in SI engine because following drawbacks of the carburetion. 

Requirements of a fuel injection system : 
Accurate metering of the fuel injected per cycle because metering errors may cause variation from the desired output. The quantity of the fuel metered varies to meet changing speed and load requirements of the engine. Read more 

6. Carburetion and Carburetor


What is carburetion?
The amount of formation of a combustible air-fuel mixture by mixing the proper amount of fuel with air before admission to engine cylinder is called carburetion. 

Factors affecting carburetion : 
The engine Speed 
The vaporization characteristics of the fuel 
The temperature of the incoming air 
The design of the carburettor  Read more

7. Engine cooling system :


Engine cooling system : 
The cooling system keeps the engine from getting not too hot but at the same time not to keep it too cool either.

Purpose of the colling system : 
A cooling system must be provided not only to prevent damage to the vital parts of the engine, but the temperature of these components must be maintained within certain limits in order to obtain maximum performance from the engine. Hence, a cooling system is needed to keep the engine from not getting so hot as to cause problems and yet to permit it to run hot enough to ensure maximum efficiency of the engine.  Read more 

8. Braking system :


Principle of the braking system :
The braking system is one of the most important control components of the vehicle. There are different types of brakes are used in various need. They are required to stop the vehicle within the smallest possible distance and this can be done by converting the kinetic energy of the vehicle into the heat energy which is dissipated into the atmosphere.   

Braking requirements : 
The brakes must be strong enough to stop the vehicle within a minimum distance in an emergency condition but this should also be consistent with safety. The driver must have proper control over the vehicle during emergency braking condition and the vehicle must not skid.  Read more

9. Automobile layout


Front-wheel drive :
A transmission system that provides power to the front wheels of a motor vehicle. 

Rear-wheel drive :

A transmission system that provides power to the rear wheels of a motor vehicle. Read more 

10. Fuels used in Automobile


Classification of fuels : 
Types of fuels such as Liquid fuels, Gaseous fuels, Solid fuels, Viscous liquid fuels, Dual fuels 

Gaseous fuels :
Gaseous fuels are ideal and pose very few problems in using them in internal combustion engines. Being gaseous, they mix more homogeneously with air and eliminate the distribution and starting problems that are encountered with liquid fuels.  Read more 

11. Steering and wheel alignment


Principle of the steering system : 
The primary function of the steering system is to achieve accurate angular motion of the front wheels to negotiate a turn. This can be done through linkage and steering gear which convert the rotary motion of the steering wheel into the angular motion of the front road wheels.  

The requirement of a good steering system : 
The steering system should be very accurate and easy to handle. 
The effort required to Spear should be minimal and must be not tiresome to the driver. Read more 

12. Supercharger system :


What is a supercharger system?
The supercharging principal aim is to achieve the twin goals such as Improved power output, Minimum exhaust emission Read more

13. Explain of various parts used in Automobile


What is the clutch?
The clutch is a mechanical device, which is used to connect or disconnect the source of power from remaining parts of the power transmission system.  

What is flywheel?
A heavy revolving wheel in a machine which is used to increase the machine's momentum and thereby provide greater stability or a reserve of available power.  Read more