Lenoir cycle | Working process | Thermal efficiency

The Lenoir cycle is a thermodynamic cycle that can be invented by Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir in 1860 is often used to model a pulse jet engine. 

Process of Lenoir cycle :


All type of process individually done in a heat engine in Lenior cycle. 

The Lenoir cycle consists of four processes which are following below. 
  • constant-volume gas expansion process. From the diagram shown below the ideal gas in the system absorbs some amount of heat from the heat source at a high temperature and then expands thus the work was done on surroundings. 
  • reversible adiabatic gas expansion process. In this process, the system is thermally insulated. The gas expands continuously and does work on surrounding, which causes the system to cool to a lower temperature. 
  • reversible isothermal gas compression process. In this process, work has done surrounding gas and cause a loss of heat.
  • reversible adiabatic gas compression process. In this process, surrounding continue to do work to a gas, which causes the temperature to rise back to high temperature attain in the first process. 
Lenoir cycle PV and TS Diagram
Lenoir cycle PV and TS Diagram


The thermal efficiency of Lenoir cycle : 

Thermodynamically, the efficiency of Lenoir cycle is given by

ŋLenoir = Work done by the system / Heat supplied to the system

CAM full form

What is the full form of CAM?

Answer : 


  • Computer-Aided Manufacturing

What does CAM mean?

CAM is computer-controlled machinery to automate the manufacturing process. 

CAM uses CAD software created models and assemblies to generate tool paths that drive machine tools to turn a design into the physical parts.


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Technical terms and their full form used in manufacturing

VMC full form

What is the full form of VMC?

Answer : 

  • Vertical Milling Center

What does VMC mean?

VMC is a specific type of milling machine which is controlled by CNC. The cutting head of this type of machine is vertical where a spindle runs in a vertical axis known as the z-axis. 


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Concept of production

Production is the transformation of inputs into output where inputs are used in many ways such as land, labour, capital, raw material etc. 

Production concept emphasis on low production costs, and high production efficiency and mass production simply said a large amount of the cheapest goods. 


The function of production :

The function of production is the technological relationship between inputs and output in physical terms. An algebraic expression for production is Q = f (K, L)

Where Q = The quantity of output produced per unit time
K = Capital 
L = Labour 


Characteristics of the production system : 

  • The production system has its own objective.
  • The system transforms the various inputs to the useful output.
  • Does not operate in isolation from the other organization system. 
  • There exists a procedure which controls and improve system performance. 

Types of production : 

  • Continuous production 
  • Batch production 
  • Mass production 
  • Job-shop production 

Definition of production

Production is the method of turning raw materials or inputs into finished goods or products means the creation of something from basic inputs. Production is the process of transformation because it is done to satisfy human wants. The process of transformation is done in the following ways. 

  1. Disintegration: One input is used to produce many types of output. 
  2. Integration or Assembly: Many inputs are used to produce only one output. 
  3. Service: Value of the product is increased by providing services. 

Automobile parts explain

What is the clutch?
The clutch is a mechanical device, which is used to connect or disconnect the source of power from remaining parts of the power transmission system.  Read more

What is flywheel?
A heavy revolving wheel in a machine which is used to increase the machine's momentum and thereby provide greater stability or a reserve of available power.  Read more

Steering and Wheel allignment

Principle of the steering system
The primary function of the steering system is to achieve accurate angular motion of the front wheels to negotiate a turn. This can be done through linkage and steering gear which convert the rotary motion of the steering wheel into the angular motion of the front road wheels.  Read more 

The requirement of a good steering system
The steering system should be very accurate and easy to handle. 
The effort required to Spear should be minimal and must be not tiresome to the driver. Read more 

What is a wheel alignment?

Wheel alignment is the positioning of the steered wheels to achieve the directional stability during straight-ahead position, perfect rolling condition on steering and recovery after completing the turn.  Read more

Steering axis inclination :
The inclination of the kingpin from vertical is called the king inclination or steering axis inclination. Steering axis inclination causes both front wheels to gain positive camber because they steer away from the centre.  Read more 

What is a caster?
The caster angle is called the angle between the kingpin centre line for the steering axis and the vertical in the wheel plane.  Read more

What is camber?
Read more 

What are Toe-in and Toe-out?
Toe-in is the amount by which the front wheels are mounted closer together on the front than on the back when the vehicle is stationary and viewed from the top. The wheel can be set closer to the rear than to the front, in which case the difference of the distances between the front and rear wheels is called toe-out.  Read more 

Correct steering angle :
cotø - cotθ = c / b  this is the fundamental equation for correct steering. Read more

Ackerman steering mechanism :
Read more 

Fuels used in Automobile

Classification of fuels
Types of fuels such as Liquid fuels, Gaseous fuels, Solid fuels, Viscous liquid fuels, Dual fuels  Read more 

Gaseous fuels :
Gaseous fuels are ideal and pose very few problems in using them in internal combustion engines. Being gaseous, they mix more homogeneously with air and eliminate the distribution and starting problems that are encountered with liquid fuels.  Read more 

Solid fuels
Solid fuels are categories by following below :
  • Biomass ( 5 C and 37 P )
  • Charcoal (27 P )
  • Coal (13 C and 64 P )
  • Oil shale ( 7 C and 12 P )
  • Peat ( 2 C and 4 P )
  • Wood fuel ( 1 C and 9 P )  Read more

Liquid fuels : 
Read more 

Chemical structure of petroleum :
Petroleum, as obtained from the oil wells, is predominantly a mixture of many hydrocarbons with differing molecules structure. It also contains a small amount of sulphur, oxygen, nitrogen and impurities such as water and sand. Read more 


Automobile layout

Front-wheel drive :
A transmission system that provides power to the front wheels of a motor vehicle. Read more

Rear-wheel drive :
A transmission system that provides power to the rear wheels of a motor vehicle. Read more 

Braking system

Principle of the braking system :
The braking system is one of the most important control components of the vehicle. There are different types of brakes are used in various need. They are required to stop the vehicle within the smallest possible distance and this can be done by converting the kinetic energy of the vehicle into the heat energy which is dissipated into the atmosphere.  Read more 

Braking requirements
The brakes must be strong enough to stop the vehicle within a minimum distance in an emergency condition but this should also be consistent with safety. The driver must have proper control over the vehicle during emergency braking condition and the vehicle must not skid.  Read more 

Brake efficiency and stopping distance
The brake efficiency usually varies from 50 to 80 % which enable the vehicle to stop within a reasonable distance. Approximate stopping distance at different vehicle velocities for various conditions of brakes are different. However, the minimum allowable limit of brake efficiency for any vehicle is 50 % for foot brakes and 30% for hand brakes. Read more 

Types of brakes :

There are different types of automotive brakes may be used according to the following considerations :
Purpose
Location 
Construction 
Method of actuation 
Extra braking effort  Read more

Drum brake :
In this types of brakes, a brake drum is attached concentrically to the axle hub whereas on the axle casing is mounted a backplate. In case of the front axle, the brakes plate is bolted to the steering knuckle. The backplate is made of pressed steel sheet and is ribbed to increase rigidity and to provide support for the expander, anchor and the brake shoes are protects the drum and shoe assembly from dust and mud.  Read more 

Disc brake
In between each disc and the piston, there is a friction pad held in position by retaining pins, spring plates etc. Passages are drilled for the fluid in the calliper to enter or leave each housing. These passages are also connected to another passage for bleeding. Each cylinder contains a rubber sealing ring between the cylinder and the piston.  Read more

Engine cooling system

Engine cooling system
The cooling system keeps the engine from getting not too hot but at the same time not to keep it too cool either.  Read more

Purpose of the colling system
cooling system must be provided not only to prevent damage to the vital parts of the engine, but the temperature of these components must be maintained within certain limits in order to obtain maximum performance from the engine. Hence, a cooling system is needed to keep the engine from not getting so hot as to cause problems and yet to permit it to run hot enough to ensure maximum efficiency of the engine.  Read more 


    Carburetion and Carburetor

    What is carburetion?
    The amount of formation of a combustible air-fuel mixture by mixing the proper amount of fuel with air before admission to engine cylinder is called carburetion. Read more 

    Factors affecting carburetion

    The engine Speed 
    The vaporization characteristics of the fuel 
    The temperature of the incoming air 
    The design of the carburettor  Read more

    What is carburettor?

    Carburetion is the process of formation of a combustible air-fuel mixture by mixing the proper amount of fuel with air before admission to the engine cylinder. The device with does this job is called carburettor. Read more

    Parts of carburettor and function

    Fuel strainer
    Float chamber
    Main fuel metering and idling nozzles 
    Chock and throttle  Read more 

    Carburettor size :

    The size of a carburettor is generally given in terms of the diameter of the venturi tube in mm and the jet size in hundredths of a millimetre.  Read more

    Air-fuel mixture

    The three types of mixtures are following below :
    Chemically correct mixture 
    Rich mixture
    Lean mixture  Read more

    Simple carburettor :

    Carburettors are highly complex provides an air-fuel mixture for cruising or normal range at a single speed. Later, other mechanisms to provide for the various special requirements like starting, idling, variable load and speed operation and acceleration will be included. Read more 

    Modern carburettor

    There are some new systems used in the modern carburettor for meeting the requirement of vehicles. Anti-dieseling system, Richer coasting system, Acceleration pump system, Economizer or Power enrichment system  Read more

    Types of carburettor

    There are three general types of carburettor depending on the direction of flow of air.
    Up draught type 
    Down draught type
    Cross draught type  Read more 

    SU carburettor

    SU carburettors, in general, a constant torque type carburettor. Zenith, Solex and carter carburettor are an example of this type. SU carburettor differs completely from them being constant vacuum or constant depression type with automatic variable chock. Read more 

    Solex carburettor : 

    The Solex carburettor is famous for its ease of starting, good performance and reliability. It is one type of down draught carburettor. This carburettor is made in various models and is also used n many automobile engines.  Read more

    Carter carburettor

    Carter carburettor is multiple jets, plain tube type of carburettor with only one adjustment which is for idling or low-speed operation. Carter carburettor is normally used in Jeeps. Read more 

    Injection system

    What is the fuel injection system
    Fuel-injection system is most vital the component in the working of CI engines. Fuel-injection system is commonly used in CI engine. In present gasoline injection system is also coming in SI engine because following drawbacks of the carburetion. Read more

    Accurate metering of the fuel injected per cycle because metering errors may cause variation from the desired output. The quantity of the fuel metered varies to meet changing speed and load requirements of the engine. Read more 

    Mainly fuel injection system classified in two categories:
    Air injection system
    Solid injection system Read more

    Injection system main purpose is to the preparation of the combustible charge and is same as carburetion.
    • Fuel injection pump such as elevated pressure to high pressure
    • A high-pressure pipe which sends fuel to the injection nozzle
    • Injection nozzle that injects the fuel into the cylinder
    • Feed pump that sucks fuel from the fuel tank
    • Fuel filter which filtrates the fuel Read more

    The injection of fuel into the SI engine can be done by following methods :
    • Direct injection of fuel into the cylinder
    • Injection of fuel close to the inlet valve
    • Injection of fuel into the inlet manifold Read more
    Nowadays modern gasoline injection systems use engine sensor, a computer and solenoid operated fuel injectors to meter and inject the right amount of fuel into the engine cylinders. These systems called electronic fuel injection system OR EFI. Read more

    The main function of this system is to supply a proper ratio of gasoline and air to the cylinders. These systems function under two basic arrangements Port injection and Throttle body injection Read more 

    In the MPFI electronic control system the sensors that monitor intake air temperature, oxygen, water temperature, the starter signal and the throttle position send signals to the ECU. The airflow sensor sends signals to the ECU related to the intake air volume. The ignition sensor sends information about engine speed. Read more

    The MPFI is an advanced version of the carburettor engine. Even though the working of MPFI engine is somewhat similar to the engine used by carburettor each cylinder is treated individually. Read more

    Electronic fuel injection control of the following characteristics :
    • Injection timing
    • Fuel injection quantity
    • Injection rate during various stages of injection Read more

    There are different versions of electronically controlled diesel injection system :
    1. Electronically controlled injection pumps 
    2. Electronically controlled unit injectors 
    3. Common rail fuel injection system  Read more

    Nowadays in automobile industries the use of common rail fuel injection system increasing in diesel engines as it has the potential to drastically cut emissions and fuel consumption. Read more

    CRDi is meant for direct injection of the fuel into the cylinders of a diesel engine via a single, common line, called the common rail and is connected to all the fuel injectors. Read more

    Ignition System


    What is the Ignition system?
    An ignition system generates the electrical charge between the two electrodes of the spark plug to ignite a fuel-air mixture in a spark-ignition internal combustion engine. Read more

    A requirement of ignition system : 

    To provide good spark between the electrodes of the plugs at the correct timing.
    It should work efficiently across the entire engine speed range. Read more 

    Battery ignition system :
    Nowadays most of the spark-ignition engines use a battery ignition system. In this system, the energy required for producing a spark is obtained from a 6 or 12 Volt battery. Construction of a battery ignition system depends on the type of ignition energy storage as well as on the ignition performance. Read more 

    Working of the battery ignitions system
    In this battery ignition system, the source of the ignition energy is the ignition coil. This coil stores the energy in its magnetic field and delivers it at the instant of ignition in the form of a pulse of high voltage current through the high tension ignition cables to the correct spark plug. Read more
    The current switching capability of the breaker system: As the engine speed increases the primary voltage decreases. Read more

    Magneto is one of the special types of ignition system with its own electric generator to provide the necessary energy for the system. Read more

    Tractors, oil burners and outboard motors
    Washing machine
    Trucks and cement mixture trucks Read more

    In automobile industries, TCI system which provides a higher output voltage and use electronic triggering to maintain the required timing is fast replacing the conventional ignition systems. Read more

    The CDI trigger box includes the capacitor, thyristor power switch, charging device that is used to convert battery voltage to change the voltage of 300 to 500 V by pulse through a voltage transformer and pulse shaping unit and control unit. Read more

    CNC full form

    What is the full form of CNC?

    Answer : 

    • Computerized Numerical Control 

    What does CNC mean?

    CNC uses Computer-Aided Design Software (CAD) to produced design converts the design into numbers. The numbers can be considered to be the coordinate of the graph and it controls the movement of the cutter. 


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    Difference between CNC and VMC

    CNC full form is Computer Numerical Control while VMC full form is Vertical Machining Center. CNC is machine and VMC is just part of the machine. Now, let us have a deep insight into the comparison and difference between CNC and VMC. 


    Difference between CNC and VMC :

    • CNC having two axis x and z whereas VMC having three-axis x,y, and z. 
    • We have to change the tool for different operations in CNC while an automatic change of tool is done in VMC. The tool changing process is done by a turret index in CNC whereas by ATC arm in case of VMC. 
    • CNC most often used for cutting metal whereas VMC is very expensive and at the same time are very precise. 
    • CNC mainly used for turning of inner and outer diameter whereas VMC mainly used for milling end and milling face. 
    • Geometry offset in CNC is z and x-axis and only z-axis is for VMC. 
    • The tool is rotated in VMC whereas not in case of CNC. 
    • In CNC, a turret is worked as a tool holding and supporting device while Magzine is used for tool holding and Spindle is used for a tool supporting device in VMC.

    Advantages and disadvantages of continuous variable transmission

    Continuous variable transmission differs from the automated manual transmission, which can seamlessly change through an infinite number of effective gear ratios between maximum and minimum values. It is a clutchless gearbox but in some applications, a centrifugal clutch is added to ease neutral stance. It consists of a belt which rotates and slides between two tapered drums as you accelerate the vehicle, The belt begins to rotate on the drums and, at the same time, to slide on the drums from one side to the other. This decides the drive to a driven ratio of torque which further varies the speed of the vehicle. It delivers a constant acceleration from a complete stop to cruising speed with the ability provide to set the operating point, an engine can be run to provide the maximum fuel efficiency. Let us have a deep insight into the pros and cons of the continuous variable transmission (CVT) in this article. 

    Advantages of continuous variable transmission : 

    • Vehicle weight is reduced. 
    • To provide smooth operation. 
    • The efficiency of the engine is increased since there is no repetitive engagement and disengagement of the power from the engine. 
    • To provide quick acceleration. 

    Disadvantages of continuous variable transmission : 

    • This transmission may affect the performance and life of the belt since there is an initial slip in the transmission belt. 
    • There will be a speed limit. 
    • The cost of CVT is high as compared with AMT is the reason why car makers are not putting in entry-level hatchbacks and small cars. 
    • The cost of the transmission belt is high. 

    Advantages and disadvantages of automated manual transmission

    The automated manual transmission is also known as a semi-automatic transmission is not fully automatic or clutch-less transmission. This type of transmission mechanism involves the use of two key parts such as a hydraulic actuator system and an electronic control unit that engages and disengages the clutch while executing gear shifts. It is just same as a kit that can be added to any regular manual transmission thus car makers use it on some low-cost cars because this type of transmission is very cost-effective and is relatively cheaper than the other auto transmission. Let us have a deep insight into the pros and cons of an automated manual transmission. 

    Advantages of automated manual transmission : 

    • Low maintenance.
    • Great mileage.
    • Fuel efficiency is close to their similar cars.
    • Cheaper than a conventional fully automatic gearbox.

    Disadvantages of automated manual transmission : 

    • It is not best while driving on hills or on a slope. 
    • No smoothness like an automatic car. 
    • Jerky shifts if you drive aggressively.
    • Who wants a pure automatic car experience, not for enthusiasts. 

    Advantages and disadvantages of dual clutch transmission

    A dual-clutch transmission works on a similar principle of an automated manual transmission but this transmission uses two clutches instead of one. They are used for odd and even gear sets that makes it more efficient gearbox contained into one single housing. Let us have a deep insight into the pros and cons provided by dual-clutch transmission.  

    Advantages of dual-clutch transmission :

    • Provide smooth acceleration by preventing changes in torque or gear shifts.
    • Fuel economy improved by up to 10%.
    • It can handle high torque demands of high-performance cars. 
    • Switch gears far faster than others. 
    • Drivers can tell computers when to take action with the help of paddles or gearshift even with automatic engagement and disengagement of the clutch. 

     Disadvantages of dual-clutch transmission : 

    • Fuel efficiency is lower. 
    • Not as reliable as wear and tear are more in this type of transmission. 
    • Complexity is more. 

    Advantages and disadvantages of fluid clutch

    What is the fluid clutch?

    The fluid clutch power transmission is happened by means of hydraulic pressure. 

    Advantages of fluid clutch : 

    • Extremely smooth start and stop.
    • Ability to absorb shocks. 

    Disadvantages of fluid clutch : 

    • There is always chances of slip.
    • The fluid used should be compatible with the clutch material.

    Advantages and disadvantages of electromagnetic clutch

    What is the electromagnetic clutch?


    The electromagnetic clutch power transmission is achieved by means of an electromagnetic field. There are three types of clutch such as magnetic hysteresis clutch, eddy current clutch, and magnetic particle clutch. 

    Advantages of electromagnetic clutch : 

    • Easy to control. 
    • Rapid response time.
    • Start and stop are smooth.
    • Less wear and tear at the contact point. 
    • Mostly used to achieve automatic transmission.
    • No linkage is required to operate the clutch. 

    Disadvantages of electromagnetic clutch : 

    • High initial cost.
    • Not suitable for high temperature.
    • During engagement risk of overheating.
    • A periodic check should be done for coil brushes. 

    Advantages and disadvantages of TIG welding

    TIG welding process using a non-consumable electrode that contains 1 to 2 % thoria mix along with the core tungsten or tungsten with 0.15 to 0.40 % zirconia. The pure tungsten electrodes are less expensive but also carry less current but thoriated tungsten electrode carries high current and more desirable because they can strike and maintain a stable at with relative ease. Tungsten inert gas welding offers several advantages that account for its popularity and its use in agriculture and many other industries. Let us have a deep insight into the advantages of TIG welding in this article. 


    Advantages of TIG welding :

    • It produces high quality and clean welds.
    • No slag is produced so welds are not weakened.
    • The weld is automatically protected by the inert gas during the welding process so welds are corrosion resistance, more ductile, and stronger.
    • This process can apply for any position of welding likewise horizontal, vertical or flat.
    • It can be performed by both automatic and manual technique.
    • It easily applied to the thin material and used for a wide range of metal thickness.
    • There is less distortion of workpiece because of the small heat-affected zone.
    • Only the necessary amount of filler metal is added to the welding puddle so there is no spatter or sparks are produced.
    • Use one shielding gas mainly Argon for all applications.
    • In this process finishing process required little or less sometimes grinding or preparation before it can be painted.
    • It is the preferred choice in most of the intricate works, where the shape of each and every weld joint counts.

    Disadvantages of TIG welding : 

    • It is a slow process.
    • A more complicated process so that highly skilled labour is required.
    • Less economical than consumable electrode for sections thicker than 3/8 inch.
    • Tungsten inclusion.
    • A welder is exposed to the huge intensities of light.
    • This process is also more expensive.
    • Sensitive to drafts.

    Advantages and disadvantages of permanent mould casting

    Permanent mould casting is a process makes use of a reusable metal mould that made from metal. This process involves pouring molten metal into a mould where cools and solidifies after that mould is opened, casting is removed and mould is reused. Let us have a deep insight into the advantages and disadvantages provided by using this casting process. 


    Advantages of permanent mould casting : 

    • Close dimensional tolerance can be obtained. 
    • This process is economical for large scale production as the labour involved in the mould preparation is reduced. 
    • Produce a very good surface finish of the order of 4 microns.
    • Better appearance.
    • This process produces a fine-grained casting with superior mechanical properties because of the metallic mould used.
    • Small cored holes may be produced as compared to sand casting.
    • Inserts can be readily cast in place. 
    • Increases repeatability of casting.
    • Finer grain structure can be obtained.
    • High volume production runs.
    • Less expensive than investment and die casting.

    Disadvantages of permanent mould casting :

    • Only non-ferrous metals may be cast by this process.
    • Less competitive with sand casting when three or more sand cores are required. 
    • Higher tooling cost.
    • The complicated shape can not be produced. 
    • Only suitable for large scale production. 

    Advantages and disadvantages of CNG

    CNG stated as compressed natural gas is a fuel used in place of petrol, and diesel fuel It produces fewer undesirable gases in the combustion process than petrol and diesel. Let us have a deep insight into the pros and cons of CNG in this article. 

    Advantages of CNG : 

    • Less Harmful than coal or oil and environmentally friendly.
    • Easy storage and transport because natural gas stored and transported through pipelines, small storage units, cylinders or tankers on land and sea.
    • The vehicles operating on CNG has lower maintenance costs as compared to hydrocarbon fuel-powered vehicles so reduced fuel cost.
    • CNG gives a better life to lubricating oils, as it does not contaminate and dilute the crankcase oil.
    • It produces less pollution in the form of CO2, CO, NOx and SOx as compared to petrol.
    • It is lighter than air and tends to dissipate when there is a leakage unlike Propane, which is heavier than air, collects into explosive pockets.
    • Using CNG makes the engine cleaner and more efficient.
    • Reduced maintenance cost.
    • CNG has higher octane levels averaging over 120 octane.
    • CNG is abundant in the U.S The country has extensive natural gas resources and a well-established network of pipelines. 
    • Switching to CNG can help ease the country's dependence to foreign oil.

    Disadvantages of CNG :

    • Reduced power for the same engine capacity.
    • CNG filling stations are very limited.
    • Performance of the car is reduced significantly. 
    • Acceleration is slower so you may have to rev the engine more to get going.
    • Burning of natural gas also releases carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and other carbon components which are greenhouse gases that cause global warming.
    • Provide less mileage than gasoline.
    • Leaks of natural gas are dangerous it may cause explosions or fire. the main danger is that the odourless and leaks cannot be detached unless some odorant has been added to the gas.
    • Conversion kits tend to come with a high-cost typically it would only make financial sense to convert a late model vehicle to CNG because of the conversion cost.
    • Storage space is a very big issue because CNG tanks are large in size so boot space is reduced.
    • Cars with CNG kits should always be started on petrol and run for a few kilometres before being switched to the green fuel. This warms up the engine better and gets the motor well lubricated. This cause the injectors to crust and get blocked.
    • Non-renewable energy source.
    • Natural gas is a source of violence and terrorism.
    • Natural gas emits some quantities of greenhouse gas.

    Advantages and disadvantages of fuel injection system

    Fuel-injection system is the most vital component in the working of CI engines. The injection system has to perform the important duty of initiating and controlling the combustion process. Injection system main purpose is to the preparation of the combustible charge and is same as carburetion. Let us have a deep insight into the pros and cons of the fuel injection system. 

    Advantages of fuel injection system :

    • Setup is simple for a fuel injection system.
    • The use of different sensors for detection of various changes such as altitude, throttle position, weather condition which would correct the amount of fuel to be delivered to the cylinders.  This maximizes the economy and engine's power.
    • Easier to start especially during the harsh winter season.
    • Precise, constant and accurate supplication of fuel to the engine.
    • Accurate throttle response and tuning options.
    • No requirement of adjusting them in accordance with situations.
    • Saves undue fuel consumption.  
    • Fuel burns efficiently because it becomes atomized as it passes through the cylinder.
    • No need for frequent tune-ups in the use of fuel injection system.
    • Ability to run higher compression ratios when the fuel is injected. 
    • The vehicle picks up will be good and fast.

    Disadvantages of a fuel injection system :

    • With the use of electronic fuel injector, you cannot use leaded gas.
    • This system usually has a shortened life unlike with carburettors.
    • The fuel injection system is a lot more expensive than a carburettor upgrade.
    • Repairing of fuel injectors is not easy as compared with carburettors.
    • The Air fuel ratio and mix of that will be excellent in a carburettor than a direct Injection system.
    • There may be more of unburnt hydrocarbon.
    • The air-fuel ratio and mix of that will be excellent in a carburettor than a direct Injection system.
    • There may be more of unburnt hydrocarbon.
    • Servicing of the fuel injector unit is cumbersome.
    • If there is an ECU failure, the bike will seize to work.
    • Procuring new fuel maps is a costly affair.
    • The need for fuel return lines to the tank in use, or a separate header tank.
    • Possible vapour lock in the steel fuel lines above the engine, making it difficult to start a hot engine.