A drilling machine is one of the most important machine tools in a workshop is a material removing or cutting process in which the tool uses a drill bit to cut into solid materials a hole of circular cross-section.

While performing drilling operation rotating edge of a cutting tool known as the twist drill which exerts a large force on the work clamped on a table.

The Egyptians drilled holes about 3000 years ago by bow drills in 1200 B.C.

There are different types of drilling machine used to perform the drilling operation which is following below.

Parallel shank (stub series) twist drill

Parallel shank (long series) twist drill

Taper shank twist drill

In the British system, drills are manufactured in three different sizes.

1. Number Sizes :

The drill size range from No. 1 to No. 80.

Number 80 is the smallest having diameter equal to 0.0135 inches and the number 1 is the largest diameter equal to 0.228 inches.

2. Letter sizes :

The drill size range from A to Z.

A being the smallest having diameter equal to 0.234 inches and Z being the largest having diameter equal to 0.413 inches.

3. Fractional sizes :

The drill sizes range from 1/64 inch to 5 inches.

The drill is made in three types, namely, normal (N), hard (H), soft (S).

Thus a long-series 10 mm dia parallel shank twist drill conforming to I.S. Standard, made from carbon steel, type S and point angle 80 degrees are designated as follows.

For two-piece of construction and cutting portion, high-speed steel is used.

For two-piece of construction and shank portion carbon steel with a minimum tensile strength of 70 kg per sq mm.

High-speed drills are more widely used due to its greater cutting efficiency.

It is usually expressed in meters per minute.

Where d is the diameter of the drill in mm and n is the r.p.m of the drill spindle.

Cutting speed of drill depends on several factors which are following below.

For example - Drill of high-speed steel can be operated at about twice the speed of drill of high carbon steel.

The feed per minute may be defined as the axial distance moved by the drill into the work per minute.

Sm = Feed per minute in mm.

Sr = Feed per revolution in mm.

n = r.p.m of the drill.

The amount of feed is depending upon :

Thus if d be the diameter of the drill the depth of cut (t) is expressed as :

While performing drilling operation rotating edge of a cutting tool known as the twist drill which exerts a large force on the work clamped on a table.

The Egyptians drilled holes about 3000 years ago by bow drills in 1200 B.C.

There are different types of drilling machine used to perform the drilling operation which is following below.

**Types of Drilling Machine :**- Portable drilling machine
- Sensitive drilling machine
- Upright drilling machine
- Radial drilling machine
- Gang drilling machine
- Multiple spindle drilling machine
- Automatic drilling machine
- Deep hole drilling machine

**Drilling machine Operations :**- Drilling
- Reaming
- Boring
- Counterboring
- Countersinking
- Spot facing
- Tapping
- Lapping
- Grinding
- Trepanning

**Types of the drill commonly used are :**- Flat or spade drill
- Straight fluted drill
- Two-lip twist drill

Parallel shank (stub series) twist drill

Parallel shank (long series) twist drill

Taper shank twist drill

- Taper shank core drill
- Oil tube drill
- Centre drill

**Drill Size :****Drills from 0.2 to 100 mm are commonly produced in the metric system.**

In the British system, drills are manufactured in three different sizes.

1. Number Sizes :

The drill size range from No. 1 to No. 80.

Number 80 is the smallest having diameter equal to 0.0135 inches and the number 1 is the largest diameter equal to 0.228 inches.

2. Letter sizes :

The drill size range from A to Z.

A being the smallest having diameter equal to 0.234 inches and Z being the largest having diameter equal to 0.413 inches.

3. Fractional sizes :

The drill sizes range from 1/64 inch to 5 inches.

**Designation of Drill :****Twist drills are designated in the Indian standard system by the series they belong to, the diameter, the I.S. Number and drilling material.**

The drill is made in three types, namely, normal (N), hard (H), soft (S).

Thus a long-series 10 mm dia parallel shank twist drill conforming to I.S. Standard, made from carbon steel, type S and point angle 80 degrees are designated as follows.

**Parallel shank twist drill (Long) 10.00 - IS:599-CS-S-80**

**Drill Material :****For one piece of construction, high-speed steel or carbon steel are used.**

For two-piece of construction and cutting portion, high-speed steel is used.

For two-piece of construction and shank portion carbon steel with a minimum tensile strength of 70 kg per sq mm.

High-speed drills are more widely used due to its greater cutting efficiency.

**Cutting Speed :****The cutting speed in a drilling operation is the peripheral speed of a point on the surface of the drill in contact with the work.**

It is usually expressed in meters per minute.

**v = Π d n /1000 m per min**

Where d is the diameter of the drill in mm and n is the r.p.m of the drill spindle.

Cutting speed of drill depends on several factors which are following below.

- The kind of material is being drilled. Softer material the higher the speed.
- The cutting tool material.

For example - Drill of high-speed steel can be operated at about twice the speed of drill of high carbon steel.

- The efficient use of cutting fluid.
- The quality of the surface finish desired.
- The method of holding the work.
- The size, type, and rigidity of the machine.

**Feed :****The feed of a drill is the distance the drill moves into the work at each spindle revolution.**

The feed per minute may be defined as the axial distance moved by the drill into the work per minute.

**Sm = Sr × n**

Sm = Feed per minute in mm.

Sr = Feed per revolution in mm.

n = r.p.m of the drill.

The amount of feed is depending upon :

- Material being cut
- The rigidity of the job and machine
- Depth of hole
- Type of finish desired
- Power available
- Range of feed available

**Depth of cut :****Depth of cut in drilling is equal to one half the diameter of the drill.**

Thus if d be the diameter of the drill the depth of cut (t) is expressed as :

**t = d / 2 mm**