What is mechanical spring?

Spring is defined as an elastic machine element that deflects under the load action and returns to its original shape when the load is removed.

Functions of spring 

  • To absorb shock and vibration
  • To store energy
  • To measure force
  • Spring is used to apply force and control the motion

Types of Spring 


Spring is classified by its shape may be a wire helical coil. The most popular type of spring is the helical spring.

Helical spring is sometimes classified as spring close-coiled and spring open-coiled.
  1. When the spring wire is coiled so close and its helix angle is very small, a helical spring is said to be close-coiled spring. Usually, a helix angle is less than 10 degrees.
  2. A helical spring is said to be open-coiled spring, when the spring wire is coiled in such a way, that there is a large gap between the adjacent coil and its helix angle is large. Usually, a helix angle is more than 10 degrees. 
Two basic types of helical springs are following below :
  1. Compression Spring
  2. Extension Spring
Both this type of helical spring have the following advantages :
  • They are easy to manufacture.
  • They are cheaper than other types of spring.
  • Their reliability is high.
  • The deflation of spring is linearly propositional to the force acting on the spring. 
Due to the above advantages, the helical spring is popular and extensively used in a number of applications.


Helical spring
Helical Spring



Helical Torsion Spring 


The term torsion is somewhat misleading because the wire is subjected to bending stress.
The construction of this type of spring is similar to that of the compression or extension spring, expect the ends to be formed in such a way that the spring is loaded around the axis of a coil by a torque.

The helical torsion spring is used to transmit torque in the machine to a specific component. Helical torsion spring is used in door-hinges, brush-holders, starters for automobiles and door locks.


Helical torsion spring
Helical torsion spring


Multi-leaf or Laminated Spring 


This spring is made up of a series of flat plates, usually in the semi-elliptical form. The flat plates are called leaves, the length of the leaves varies, the leaves are held together by means of U-bolts and a centre clip.

The longest leaf is called the master leaf and it bends at the both of two ends. The leaves of multi-leaf springs are subjected to bending stress. 

Multi-leaf spring is commonly used for vehicle, truck and rail wagon suspension.


Multileaf spring
Multileaf spring

Advantages and disadvantages of power screw

A power screw is a drive for converting rotary motion into a linear motion for power transmission in a machine. A power screw is also sometimes referred to as a translation screw. Instead of holding the parts together, it uses helical screw motion to transmit the power. Now in this article, you can check it out the pros and cons of power screw to understand more about it. 

Advantages of power screw :

  • Large load carrying capacity.
  • Simple to design.
  • Compact construction.
  • Easy to manufacture.
  • By applying small effort as 400 N, a load of 15 KN can be raised.
  • Gives smooth and noiseless service without any maintenance.
  • Self-locking property.
  • Precise and accurate linear motion.
Disadvantages of power screw :

  • Very poor efficiency is as low as 40%.
  • It can be used for intermittent motion.
  • High friction in threads causes rapid wear.

What is power screw

A power screw is a mechanical device used to convert rotary motion into linear motion and transmit power.

The power screw has three main parts such as screw, nut, and a part to hold either the screw or the nut. 

The power screw operates in two different ways depending on the holding arrangement. 
  • In its bearing, the screw rotates, while the nut has axial motion.
The lathe's lead screw is an example of this category.
  • The nut is kept stationary and screw moves in the axial direction 
Screw Jack and Machine Vice are examples of this category.

Applications of power screw : 

The main application of the power screw is the following below.
  • To raise the load. Example - Screw-jack
  • To obtain accurate motion in machining operations. Example - The lead screw of a lathe
  • To clamp a workpiece. Example - Vice
  •  To load a specimen. Example - Universal testing machine

Reference Books of Refrigeration and Airconditioning


  1. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning by C. P. Arora FLIPKART
  2. Basic Refrigeration and Air Conditioning by Ananthanarayanan FLIPKART
  3. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning by G.F. Hundy, A.R.Trott, T.C. Welch FLIPKART
  4. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning by Ameen Ahmadul FLIPKART
  5. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning by W.F. Stoecker J.W. Jones FLIPKART 

Reference Books of Theory of Machine


  1. Theory of Machines by Thomas Bevan FLIPKART
  2. Theory of Machines by R.S. Khurmy, J.K. Gupta FLIPKART 
  3. Theory of Machines by S S Raran FLIPKART

Reference Books of Thermodynamics


  1. Engineering Thermodynamics by Nag P. K FLIPKART
  2. Engineering Thermodynamics by M. Achuthan FLIPKART 
  3. Thermodynamics: An engineering approach by Yunus A. Cengel, Michael A. Boles FLIPKART 
  4. Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics by M. J. Moran and H. N. Shapiro FLIPKART
  5. Principle of Engineering Thermodynamics by Moran, Shapiro, Boettner, Bailey FLIPKART
  6. Fundamentals of Thermodynamics by Sonntag R. E, Borgnakke C., and Van Wylen G. J FLIPKART
  7. Applied Thermodynamics by Eastop FLIPKART

Reference Books of Fluid Mechanics


  1. Fluid Mechanics by Fox FLIPKART
  2. A Textbook of Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines by R.K.Bansal FLIPKART
  3. Fluid Mechanics by V.L. Streeter FLIPKART
  4. Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics by A.L. Prasuhn FLIPKART
  5. Introduction of Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Machines by Biswas FLIPKART 
  6. Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines by K Subramanya FLIPKART 

Reference books of Strength of Material


  1. Strength of Materials by Bhavikatti FLIPKART 
  2. Mechanics of Structures by Junarkar S.B. FLIPKART
  3. Strength of Materials Vol. I by S.P. Timonshenko FLIPKART
  4. Strength of Materials Vol.II by S.P. Timonshenko FLIPKART
  5. Strength of Material by S. Ramamrutham FLIPKART 
  6. Strength of Material by R.S. Khurmi N Khurmi FLIPKART 
  7. Engineering Mechanics of Solids by Egor. P.Popov FLIPKART
  8. Advanced Mechanics of Solids by Srinath L.N FLIPKART

Reference Books of Solid Mechanics


  1. An Introduction to Mechanics of Solids by S.H. Crandall, N.C. Dahl and S.J.Lardner FLIPKART
  2. Theory of Elasticity by Timoshenko S.P. and Goodier J.N. FLIPKART
  3. Solid Mechanics by S.M.A. Kazimi FLIPKART
  4. Introduction to Mechanics of Solids by E.P. Popov FLIPKART
  5. Mechanics of Solids by Arbind Kumar Singh FLIPKART

Reference Books of Engineering Graphics and Drawaing


  1. Engineering Drawing and Graphics by K. Venugopal FLIPKART
  2. Engineering Drawing by N.D. Bhatt and V.M. Panchal FLIPKART
  3. Engineering Graphics by B. Bhattacharyya FLIPKART