Disadvantages of LPG cars

LPG is used as a fuel in vehicles let we know the full form of LPG is liquefied petroleum gas. Now let you check it out how to harm vehicles if you used the LPG as a fuel in your cars.

Disadvantages of LPG cars :

  • At full throttle, LPG will produce 10% less horsepower.
  • LPG ignition temperature is somewhere higher than petrol.
  • LPG reduced 5% valve life.
  • A good cooling system is necessary.
  • The vehicle weight is increased due to the use of heavy pressure cylinder to store LPG.
  • Not all petrol stations sell LPG hence you can always use petrol as a backup.
  • Installation is difficult.
  • An engine will be overheated in a long journey because complete combustion occurs so more heat is liberated.
  • Reduce engine life efficiency.
  • Handling must be done under approximately 18 bar pressure.
  • LPG characteristics odour is faint, so leakage can't be easily detected. 
  • Response to blending is feeble.  

Transistorized Coil Ignition System

In automobile industries, TCI system which provides a higher output voltage and use electronic triggering to maintain the required timing is fast replacing the conventional ignition systems.

This also called high energy electronic ignition system.

Advantages of the TCI system :
  • Reduced ignition system maintenance
  • Reduced wear of components
  • Increased reliability
  • Extend spark plug life
  • Improved ignition of lean mixtures

Difference between Battery Ignition System and Magneto Ignition System

What is Battery ignition system?

An ignition system in which battery is used for the generation of electricity and that electricity used in automobile vehicle is called a battery ignition system

What is Magneto ignition system?

An ignition system in which magneto is used for the generation of electricity and that electricity used in automobile vehicle is called a magneto ignition system

Let us have a deep insight into the comparison between both the ignition system and also check it out the difference between them. 

Battery Ignition System :
  • A battery is necessary so difficult to start the engine when the battery is discharged.
  • Maintenance problems are more due to the battery.
  • Current for a primary circuit is obtained from the battery.
  • Occupies more space.
  • Commonly used in cars and light commercial vehicle.
  • Efficiency decreased with a reduction in spark intensity.
  • A good spark is available at spark plug even low speed also.
  • Efficiency decreases with the reduction in spark intensity as engine speed rises. 
  • Spark strength does not depend on the speed due to current is supplied by a battery. 
Magneto Ignition System :
  • There is no battery required so there is no battery discharge problem.
  • Maintenance problems are less because of no battery.
  • An electric circuit is generated by the magneto.
  • Occupies less space.
  • Mainly used in racing cars and two-wheelers.
  • Efficiency improves due to high-intensity spark.
  • Due to low speed, spark quality is poor at the start.
  • Efficiency improves as the engine speed rises due to high-intensity spark. 
  • Spark strength depends on the speed of an engine due to the magneto. 

Requirement of ignition system

Smooth and reliable functioning of an ignition system is essential for the reliable working of the engine.  

The important requirement of the ignition system is listed below.

  • To provide good spark between the electrodes of the plugs at the correct timing.
  • It should work efficiently across the entire engine speed range.
  • It should be light and effective.
  • Reliable in service.
  • It should be easy to maintain and compact.
  • It should be cheap and convenient to handle.
  • Spark/Ignition timing must be optimized for all engine condition. 

What is ignition system

An ignition system generates the electrical charge between the two electrodes of the spark plug to ignite a fuel-air mixture in spark ignition internal combustion engine.

Purpose of ignition system : 

To generate a very high voltage from the 12-volt battery of the car and send this to each spark plug. 

In short to initiate flame propagation. 

Explain the ignition system : 

The ignition system can be treated as a balance of energy between that provided by an external source or released by the chemical reaction so it obeys the law of conservation of energy. 

Ignition system should provide a sufficiently large voltage across the spark plug electrodes to affect the spark discharge and duration at the appropriate time. 

To obtain maximum power from an engine, the compressed mixture delivers its maximum pressure at the time when the piston is about to its downward stroke and is very close to TDC this is the reason why Ignition timing is a very important parameter in the ignition system.

Types of ignition system : 

The ignition system classified depending upon how the primary energy for operating the circuit is made available as :
In modern automobiles the following two types are in common use :
Why the ignition system is necessary? check it out Requirements of an ignition system 

What is engineering and Why engineering



Albert Einstein hit the nail right on the head when he thinks about the 
                                     what is engineering? 

In simply say that engineers identify the problem with some effort come up with a solution and invented completely new in the process. engineers creates technology and makes the product most relevant that makes our life easier.

Engineers are shaping the future. so there is really no limit to what engineers can do.

Why Engineering

reamer, Innovator, Researcher, Problem Solver, Inventor & Creator that all the terms describe the only one word that is characteristics of an engineer. 

Reasons why you should choose Engineering :

  • Engineering Is The Ultimate Field For Challenge And Creativity

  • Learn Skills You Can Apply Anywhere

  • Great Rewards And Opportunities

  • Creative Thinking

  • Technological and Scientific Discovery

  • Professional Environment

Advantage of 12 V Ignition System

Since 1950 all car engines had 6-volt ignition systems.

The advantage of the 6-volt system is that it uses the three cell storage battery which is cheaper, lighter and less bulky than a six-cell battery of the same watt-hour capacity.

As the compression ratio and engine speed increased, the voltage required to break down hence, the 12-volt system came to be preferred.

The main advantages of 12 V ignition system are :

  • The cables of a 6 V system to be twice the thickness of 12 V.
  • Transmitting equal power without excessive voltage drop.
  • During the starting surge, nearly twice the power is available for the ignition coil.

Additives for lubrication

The modern lubricants for heavy-duty engines are highly refined which otherwise may produce sludge a progressive increase in viscosity.

For these reasons, the lubricants are seasoned by the addition of certain oil-soluble organic compounds to exhibits the desired properties.

  • Anti-oxidant
  • Anti-corrosive agents
  • Pour point depressors
  • Viscosity index improvers
  • Antifoam agent
  • Oiliness and film-strength agents
  • Pressure additives
  • Detergent

Engineering Career

If you looking for a career in engineering you should know first of all what is an engineering and what is different types of branch available in engineering.

What is Engineering :

The branch of science and technology concerned with the design, building, and uses of engines, machines, and structures. 

Engineering combines the field of science and maths to solve world problems that improve the world around us. The action of working artfully to bring something about.
In simple terms, engineers identify a problem and come up with a solution often creating something new in the process.

Types of Branches : 

There are many branches of engineering but some main branches of engineering below.

There are many sub-branches of engineering which is included under the categories of main branches of engineering.
  •  Acoustic Engineering
  •  Aerospace Engineering
  •  Agriculture Engineering
  •  Applied Engineering
  •  Automobile Engineering
  •  Biomedical Engineering 
  •  Chemical Engineering
  •  Civil Engineering
  •  Computer Engineering
  •  Electrical Engineering
  •  Environmental Engineering
  •  Industrial Engineering
  •  Instrumentation and Control Engineering
  •  Mechanical Engineering
  •  Marine Engineering
  •  Materials Science Engineering
  •  Mechatronics Engineering
  •  Mining and Geographical Engineering
  •  Molecular Engineering
  •  NanoEngineering
  •  Nuclear Engineering
  •  Petroleum Engineering
  •  Software Engineering
  •  Structural Engineering
  •  Telecommunications Engineering
  •  Thermal Engineering
  •  Transport Engineering
In above some basic knowledge about engineering and different field of engineering. Students know about that before look forward to engineering career.

For Students :

Most of cases comparison and looking to your friends or any other people in your family or society students make a culprit of the wrong choice of engineering field. 
My advice for all students you study above a branch of engineering filed then decide carefully which direction your mindset and what is your interest. 
Search your interested 2 or 3 fields in detail then decide you have interested in a field what you after you select branch. 
If you do this you make a successful career in engineering and if not then you make a victim of a depressed engineer not to know what to do now. 
If you choose the right decision so you are able to interest in study otherwise engineering is just a degree for you. 
For all students choose your interested filed study in a smart way and make a success in your field.
After getting admission in engineering ;
Engineering all depends upon how you think. So always thinking about your field and make a change in your field technology. that is the way of success in the engineering field if you are ready do this so you make the right decision to choose engineering field.


For Student Career Plan

Students career planning starts from high school till college and after also further studies and not stop career for students if he/she always looking forward to his/her career.


Plan Your Life

Take time to determine your personal needs and desires. Build dreams for the future by asking yourself the following questions:

1.      What do you see yourself doing five, ten or twenty years from now?
2.      What are your values and beliefs?
3.      What type of lifestyle do you want to live?

Reach for the Stars

1.      Learn to adapt and alter your habits to new situations
2.      Don't shrink away from challenging or difficult classes
3.      Build upon your strengths
4.      Turn failure into the process on the learning curve to success

Draw on Other Resources

Experiences outside of your major can be tools for defining your skills and interests: 

1.      Part-time jobs
2.      Work-study programs
3.      Extracurricular activities
4.      Cooperative Education

Do Some Research

Do more than read the pages in the college handbook: 

1.      Talk to faculty in different departments
2.      Talk to students in different programs
3.      Talk to students who have graduated and are working in your field
4.      Look up department home pages on the Net
5.      Join a professional society and get involved
6.      Get to know the faculty and their research interests
7.      Volunteer to work in a department laboratory

Preparing for School Checklist: Middle School

You're only in middle school, and yet it's already time to take some initial steps to make sure you get into college.
Do well in school.
Study hard and get good grades in middle school, so you’re better prepared for high school.
Participate in extracurricular activities.
Extracurricullar activities will not look good on your college application, That’s because extracurricular activities can teach you character-building skills you won’t necessarily learn in the classroom, such as enthusiasm, confidence, and how to handle defeat.
Start thinking about what you’re looking for in a school.
Don’t panic you still have plenty of time for decision making. But do start to think about what’s important to you.
Talk to your parents about budgeting for school.
You’re only in middle school, but it’s not too early to sit down with your parents and discuss the money you will need when its time to go to college.

Discuss your educational and career goals with your counsellor.  
Preparing for School Checklist: High School
Most college decision-making takes place between 10th and 12th grades. It’s time to narrow down your educational choices and choose a future path.
Continue to do well in school.
There is simply no downside to working hard in school and getting good grades. Good grades open the door at many colleges.
Visiting colleges.
Visiting colleges before you apply can help you pick the one you like the best.
You will meet a lot of people on a campus visit and have the opportunity to talk to them. Gather as much info as you can what kind of college experience you can expect, so you are well informed when it’s time to make your final decision about where you go.
Compare colleges
Find out admission requirements
Want to learn more about the university you’ve had your eye on since you were a kid.
Prepare for a different test that compulsory to get admission in a well-known university.
Apply to colleges.
Wait for your admission letters.
Choose a college.

  • Make Career Decisions - Figuring out what to do with your life doesn't have to be so complicated. Meet with us to assess your interests and options and make career decisions that are right for you. Use this resource to start to explore and connect your major and career options today!
  • Design a Career Action Plan - Create and stay on track with your career plan by following our Career Planning guide and meeting with us regularly. Check out our Four Year Action Plan for undergraduates.
  • Conduct Industry Research - Check out CCE's online resources to expand your knowledge of industries, careers, and jobs. Attend our events to hear from experts working in exciting fields.
  • Gain Experience Through Internships, On-Campus or Part/Full-Time Jobs - Ready to get your feet wet? Pursue opportunities by applying to CCE's internship and student enterprise programs, searching our online recruiting system, LionSHARE, and connecting with employers at our events. Learn about other ways to gain experience through jobs and for seniors.
  • Write Effective Resumes and Cover Letters - First time writing a resume or need to update an outdated version? Use our Resume/Cover Letter Guide in the Career Planner or attend a Power Half Hour workshop to write a strong version before meeting with a counsellor.
  • Develop and Practice Interview Skills - Whether you're a first time or experienced interviewee, there's usually room to improve. Use our Interview Guide in the Career Planner, attend a Power Half Hour workshop, or schedule a practice interview to learn how to show purpose, prepare, and practice your way to a job offer.
  • Grow a Professional Network - Build relationships with professionals to learn about career paths and uncover employment opportunities. Attend networking how-to events, review our online tutorials, or work with a counsellor to learn how to develop and maintain a network of contacts. Start early!
  • Create a Strong Online Presence - Showcase your professionalism on Twitter, LinkedIn, blogs, and other social media platforms to increase your knowledge of career areas and your appeal and exposure to employers.
Students who are interested in pursuing a degree in engineering can prepare for the application process as early as middle school. By selecting a variety of science, mathematics, and engineering-related course work and participating in programs and projects that expose students to engineering concepts, students will have advanced exposure to university level work.
Pre-university Course Selection

While in middle and high school, students interested in engineering should consider taking accelerated courses in several of the following subjects.

  • Algebra 
  • Biology
  • Calculus
  • Chemistry
  • Computer science
  • Language arts
  • Precalculus 
  • Physics
  • Second language
  • Trigonometry
There are many colleges for engineering in India and across India for Engineering graduate student and students who expect the best career with him who selected for a well-known university like NITs and IITs in India.
  1. Bachelor of Engineering
  2. Bachelor of Technology
The IITs are autonomous engineering institutions that are governed by the rules and regulations laid down by the All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) established in 1945. The IITs in India are the most preferred institutes to study technology and science. Declared as the "institutions of national importance" by the Institutes of Technology Act, 1961, the IITs in India are a dream for every aspiring Indian engineer and scientist. In order to get admission into any of the IITs in India, you have to pass the IIT-JEE (Joint Entrance Examination). Every year more than a million students appear for this entrance examination; out of which about 10,000 get admission in the IITs. IITs in India Currently, there are 16 functioning IITs in India. In 2014, the Government of India proposed five new IITs in different cities that will begin operations from June 2015 onwards.

List of Indian Institute of Technology in India :
  1. IIT Kharagpur
  2. IIT Bombay
  3. IIT Kanpur
  4. IIT Madras
  5. IIT Delhi
  6. IIT Guwahati
  7. IIT Roorkee
  8. IIT Bhubaneswar
  9. IIT Gandhinagar
  10. IIT Hyderabad
  11. IIT Jodhpur
  12. IIT Patna
  13. IIT Ropar
  14. IIT Indore
  15. IIT Mandi
  16. IIT Varanasi
  17. IIT Palakkad
  18. IIT Tirupati
New IITs :

  1. IIT Chhattisgarh, Raipur
  2. IIT GOA
  3. IIT Jammu and Kashmir
  4. IIT Dhanbad

List of National Institutes of Technology in India :

  1. NIT Warangal 
  2. NIT Tiruchirappalli 
  3. MANIT Bhopal 
  4. MNIT Jaipur 
  5. MNNIT Allahabad 
  6. NIT Jamshedpur 
  7. SVNIT Surat
  8. VNIT Nagpur 
  9. NIT Kurukshetra
  10. NIT Calicut 
  11. Dr B. R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology Jalandhar 
  12. NIT Rourkela 
  13. NIT Surathkal 
  14. NIT Patna 
  15. NIT Raipur 
  16. NIT Srinagar 
  17. NIT Hamirpur
  18. NIT Delhi 
  19. NIT Arunachal Pradesh 
  20. NIT Agartala
  21. NIT Durgapur 
  22. NIT Goa 
  23. NIT Puducherry 
  24. NIT Manipur 
  25. NIT Meghalaya 
  26. NIT Mizoram 
  27. NIT Nagaland 
  28. NIT Sikkim 
  29. NIT Silchar 
  30. NIT Uttarakhand
Following all IITs and NITs give Degree of Bachelor of Technology.

There are many state level colleges in India students who didn't get admission in NITs and IITs they have to choose the best college in their state.




  •           Go for an M.Tech degree
If you studied engineering out of passion and not because you were forced by your parents or just for the sake of doing it, then MTech is a good option. You can opt for the field of study you aspire to expertise in. For this, you need to prepare well for the entrance exams to get into a good college. GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering) is a national exam conducted in India which can fetch you admission in IITs, IISC or NITs and many others.

  •             Do an MBA
Don’t feel you are the technical guy your parents wanted you to be? Always felt like you are a manager and want to see yourself in a business suit in some MNC? Probably you have a fascination for an MBA too. Don’t get diverted by the thoughts that everyone is doing an MBA right now and its value has decreased. If you want to make a career in the management sector, hold managerial positions, then an MBA is the right choice. You may specialize in your area of interest which may be the all-time popular fields like HR, Marketing, Sales or the new growing domains like Digital Marketing, International Relations etc. In India, there are various entrance examinations that will help you get into the top 30 MBA colleges. CAT (Common Admission Test) serves as a gateway for an MBA at the IIMs and many other leading institutes. Some other popular exams are XAT (Xavier), NMAT, SNAP, CMAT, TISS, IRMA etc.

  •              Prepare for Civil Services
Always saw yourself as an IAS or IPS officer? Admit it, some day or the other you must have thought about preparing for the Civil Services but left the thought because you felt that it's very tough to crack!
Yes. Indeed it is one of the toughest exams in the world to crack and there lies a huge competition to be a civil servant, but you cannot hold yourself back because of this. Civil Services is not just about cracking an exam and then clearing an interview, it judges you on everything you can think of, who you are and what you stand for!
You need to put your complete focus in addition to lots of determination to prepare for Civil Services Examination. For that, you need to - Believe in yourself.

  •             Go Abroad
It is also a very good option to explore. If you choose to study abroad, you will get a lot of exposure and learning along with the education part. You might also be able to get a job at international locations if you have plans to settle abroad permanently in the future.
You can also explore integrated opportunities abroad. Along with the options of MS, you may explore options of MS+PhD and other research-oriented courses. In addition, you could look at the various fellowships in research and development category available that may fascinate you too. You can also apply for the various scholarships which will fund your education partially or completely.

How to choose a career


  • To the choice of career is the biggest task for all the student. Career selection is only decided by the student but nowadays scenario not a big task for a student instead of the parents.
  • Now see what are the most of cases what happen actually parents have a big dreams for the child and they observe society and then decide his/her child will also be a doctor or engineer or etc like in the biggest field without knowing his/her child interest and its a biggest reason of the most number of unemployed in India.
  • Most parents dream that his/her child will get admission to the recognized university like NITs, IITs, IIMs. After completing HSC examination they will pay a high amount of fees in coaching centre of competitive exams and motivate his/her child to do good and will be getting admission in IIMs or IITs. This is why coaching industries get more profit. and after all most number students not get admission and then they decide to satisfy a lower rank college or any college. and this reason after completion of college find a job and if not find any job they decide to do any type of job even different field job too.
  • So my advice to students to first you should tell a question to yourself first before going to decide highly competitive exam 
  • Then you say how to decide I have potential or not? that's a big question
  • You see in yourself that shows your concentration power?
  • Hows your grasping power?
  • Hows your intellectual level?
  • Then you know that you have potential to get admission in a recognized institute were a big competition.
  • all over Indian students try to get admission in that colleges like NITs, IITs, IIMs. so my advice to student is that after telling above question to yourself if you know you have extraordinary potential to crack that exam so you decide to crack exams and get admission and if not you should go any filed where you are interested and in that field you do smart work not hard work and you get better career same as like IITs, IIMs students.
  • There are many fields instead of engineer and doctor think yourself and choose your career to yourself not to see other people in our society. If you choose your interested career you doing better in your field that my promise to you. and don't stop in your career whatever career you choose always think about one step ahead now what I do better in the filed? If you do this one day you also become the most successful person and one day you are in a position to that you not looking for a job but you also hire a person for the job in your field industries.

Nomenclature of Thermodynamics




Availability or Energy
Specific Keenan Function
Velocity of Sound
Specific Heat at constant pressure
Specific Heat at constant volume
Coefficient of Performance
No Unit
D, d
Many Units Exist
Specific Energy
Total Energy
Fugacity, Specific Helmholtz Function, u-Ts
Helmholtz Function
Gravitational acceleration
Specific Gibbs Function
Specific Enthalpy
Enthalpy of formation
KJ/Kg mol
Enthalpy of Products
Enthalpy of Reactants
Enthalpy of Combination
KJ/Kg fuel
Higher heating value
KJ/Kg fuel
Specific irreversibility
Total irreversibility
Boltzmann constant
Indicator spring constant
Thermal conductivity
Isothermal compressibility
Adiabatic compressibility
m2 / N
Equilibrium constant

Total kinetic energy
Latent Heat
Lower Heating Value
Mass flow rate
Mach Number

Molar mass
Kg/Kg mol
Mean effective pressure
Mass fraction

Polytropic index, Number of moles

Number of molecules

Partial Pressure
Pc, Pcr
Critical Pressure
Atmosoheric Pressure
Vapour Pressure
Total Potential Energy
Total Heat Transfer
Heat transfer rate
Cut-off ratio

Expansion ratio

Compression ratio

Constant volume pressure ratio

Characteristics of gas constant
Universal gas constant
KJ/Kg mol-K
Specific entropy
Total entropy
Time, Temperature
s, 0C
Adiabatic saturating temperature
Critical temperature
Dry bulb temperature
Dew point temperature
Temperature of surroundings
Specific internal energy
Total internal energy
Specific volume
vc, vcr
Critical specific volume
Total volume
Total Work
Maximum Work
Reversible Work
Useful Work
Quality, Dryness Fraction

Mass fraction, Mole fraction

Compressibility factor