What is extrusion

Extrusion is a compressive deformation process.

In this process confining the metal is formed in a closed cavity and then allowing it to flow from only one opening so that metal takes the shape of the opening. 
The operation is identical to the squeezing of toothpaste out of toothpaste tube.

In an extrusion process, a material is pushed through the die of the desired cross-section so it creates the object of fixed-cross section profile that what we need because of this its ability to create very complex cross-sectional area and it also works for brittle material.

Extrusions can be either very thick in cross-section or very thin and can be either solid or hollow with the proper tooling, extrusions may be tapered or stepped. 

The remaining extruded stock after finishing the forging process is then cut to convenient stock size and used as specific products, assembly components or as raw stock material for further processing.

Extrusion principle :

Extrusion principle

The equipment consists of a cylinder or container in which the billet is loaded with the heated metal. On one end of the container, the die plate with the necessary opening is fixed. From the other end, a plunger or ram compresses the metal billet against the container walls and the die plate, thus forcing it to flow through the die opening, and acquiring the shape of the opening. The extrude metal is then carried by the metal-handling system as it comes out of the die. 

By the extrusion process, it is possible to make components which have a constant cross-section over any length as can be had by the rolling process. Also, extrusion is a single-pass process unlike rolling. Generally, brittle materials can also be very easily extruded. It is possible to produce sharp corners and re-entrant angles. 

What is the extrusion ratio? 

It is the ratio of the area of a cross-section of the billet to the area of a cross-section of the extruded material.

R = Ao / Af 

The parameter used in extrusion is shape factor, the ratio of perimeter to the cross-section of the part. An extruded rod has the lowest shape factor.

The typical extrusion ratio values are between 20 to 50. Low extrusion ratios are used for intermediate operations when the billets are extruded to a given diameter before the final extrusion. 

The extrusion process is used for manufacturing long and straight metal parts with the shape of solid round, rectangular, T shapes, L shapes, and tubes. 

Extrusion speed depends on the work material. Some light alloys may be extruded at a speed of 0.05 m/s, whereas for copper alloys it may be as high as 4.50 m/s. Too high an extrusion speed causing lateral cracks because of excessive heat generation in the extruded metal.

Classification of the extrusion process :

Extrusion process mainly divide into two types one is hot extrusion and the other is cold extrusion. 

Hot extrusion : 

  • Forward hot extrusion 
  • Backward hot extrusion
Cold extrusion : 
  • Forward cold extrusion 
In the forward cold extrusion hydrostatic extrusion. 
  • Backward cold extrusion
In backward cold extrusion also two subtype one is cold extrusion forging and other is impact extrusion. 

Innovative New Pattern Wax Sure to Increase Foundry Production

A leading supplier to the global precision investment casting industry is pleased to announce the release of fast form pattern wax. 

Fast form pattern wax is a superior alternative to highly filled acid waxes and is sure to increase foundry productivity with its shorter dwell times. 

The ultra-low fill of fast form promotes less shell cracking and can increase a foundry’s reclaim yield. Because of the unique makeup of this pattern wax, it can be injected at low temperatures and will have less cavitation, sink and shrink. Additionally, fast form sets with excellent dimensional stability and has a fine surface finish.

What is investment casting

What is investment casting?

Investment casting is an industrial process based on lost-wax casting the oldest metal forming technique in which wax pattern is surrounded by an investment compound and then baked so that the investment is hardened to form a mould and the pattern material may be melted and run-off. 

Operation procedure for investment casting:

Step-1: Produce a master pattern.

Step-2: Create a mould. 
Step-3: Production of patterns such as heat disposable wax, plastic and polystyrene.
Step-4: Assembly of these patterns onto a gating system.
Step-5: Apply investment material or covering the pattern assembly with refractory slurry. 
Step-6: Melting the pattern assembly and remove the pattern material. 
Step-7: Burnout preheating. 
Step-8: Firing the mould to remove the last traces of the pattern material 
Step-9: Pouring.
Step-10: Knockout, cutoff and finishing.

Some important facts about investment casting:
  • Investment casting is also called precision casting.
  • It is a manufacturing process that allows the casting of extremely complex parts, with a good surface finish. 
  • Very thin sections range about 0.015in (0.4mm) can be produced by this process. 
  • Investment casting also allows for high dimensional accuracy. Tolerance is as low as 0.003in (0.076mm) have been claimed. 
  • Manufactured parts are generally small and any metal can be investment cast. 
  • Parts of the investment process may be automated. 
  • Investment casting is a complicated process and also expensive. 
Advantages of investment casting:
  • A complex shape which is difficult to produce by any other method is easily produced by this process.
  • Formation of hollow interiors in cylinders without cores.
  • Almost any metal can be cast and any intricate parts can be castable. 
  • Very close tolerance and better surface finish can be produced.
  • Dimensions should not vary because there is no parting line.
  • Controlled mechanical properties can be obtained.

Disadvantages of investment casting:
  • Investment castings require very long production cycle times as compared to other casting processes so time-consuming process. 
  • Difficult to cast objects requiring cores.
  • More expensive process because of large manual labour involved in the preparation of pattern and the mould.
  • This process is virtually infeasible for high volume manufacturing due to its high cost and long cycle times.
  • Holes cannot be smaller than 1/16 inch (1.6mm) and should be no deeper than about 1.5 times the diameter. 
For detailed information:
Read more >> Advantages and disadvantages of investment casting

Application of investment casting:

This process was used in the olden days for preparation of jewellery and surgical instruments.

Nowadays this process is used for making products like vanes and blades for the gas turbine, shuttle eyes for weaving, waveguides for radars, bolts and triggers for firearms, stainless steel valve bodies and impellers for turbochargers.

It is also used for innovative new pattern wax sure to increase foundry production

CI Engine full form

What is the full form of CI Engine? 

Answer :

  • Compression Ignition Engine

What does CI Engine mean?

A CI engine is an engine in which the fuel charge is ignited by itself under heavy pressure and temperature so combustion of fuel takes place without any external help. 

It is also known as the diesel engine and a compression ratio of these engines is 21:1.

Compression Ignition has more efficient than Spark Ignition.

CDI full form

What is the full form of CDI?

Answer :

  • Capacitor Discharge Ignition

What does CDI mean?

CDI is one type of thyristor which is widely used in automobile industries.

CDI is one type of automotive electronic ignition system work by using capacitor discharge. 

BSFC full form

What is the full form of BSFC?

Answer :  

  • Brake Specific Fuel Consumption

What does BSFC mean?

BSFC is a measure of the fuel efficiency of any engine that burns fuel and produces rotational or shaft power. In other words, it means how much fuel is consumed in one hour to produce one-kilowatt brake power.

BSFC = Rate of fuel consumption / Power produced

BMEP full form

What is the full form of BMEP?

Answer :

  • Brake Mean Effective Pressure

What does BMEP mean?

BMEP is a very effective way of comparing the performance of a given type to another of the same type. 

BMEP is the average pressure imposed uniformly from the top to the bottom of each power stroke on the pistons, which would produce the measured output of the brake power.  

If you know the torque and displacement of an engine, BMEF is calculated by below formula: 

(FOR 4-Stroke Engine)

(FOR 2-Stroke Engine)

BMEP in psi

TORQUE in lb-ft


If you prefer pressure readings in Bar instead of PSI, simply divide PSI by 14.5)

BHP full form

What is the full form of BHP?

Answer : 

  • Brake Horsepower

What does BHP mean?

BHP is the amount of power loss that occurs due to the gearbox, alternator, pully, water power and other auxiliary components such as power steering pump and exhaust system. 

The amount of power tells how fast work can be done is called BHP.

Brake Horse Power is measured in KW (KiloWatts).

Brake Horse Power for a pump or a fan can be expressed as follows :

BHP = (Q γ h / 33000) / η

BHP = brake horsepower (horsepower, hp)
Q = volume flow rate (ft3/min, cfm)
η = overall efficiency
Brake Horse Power for a turbine can be expressed as follows 
Pbhp = η (γ Q h / 33000)

EBD full form

What is the full form of EBD?

Answer :

  • Electronic Brake-force Distribution

What does EBD mean?

EBD is an automotive brake technology provide safety features in cars that automatically varies the amount of force applied to each vehicle's brakes on the basis of the total number of occupants, road conditions, speed, loading thus it offers excellent brake control. 

It also helps to minimize stopping distances regardless of load conditions and is always coupled with the ABS system.

FPEG full form

What is the full form of FPEG?

Answer : 

  • Free Piston Engine Linear Generator

What does FPEG mean?

FPEG allows a variable compression ratio, which makes it possible to design an engine that works ideally with different kinds of fuel and also allows to control the resistance force and therefore better control of the pistons movement and the combustion. 
The total efficiency of free-piston linear generators is around 40%.

Full Form of 2WD

What is the full form of 2WD?

Answer : 

  • Two Wheel Drive

What does 2WD mean?

In automobile language two-wheel drive vehicles such as a motorbike, a motorcycle is called a 2WD vehicle. 

Full form of VVT

What is the full form of VVT?

Answer :

  • Variable Valve Timing

What does VVT mean?

VVT is an automobile variable valve timing technology developed by Toyota. 

Variable valve timing varies the timing of opening and closing of valves for multiple engine speeds in the IC engine and also used to improve performance, fuel efficiency and emissions. 

VVT-i is one type of implementation of VVT technology to control the VVT functionality using some actuators. 

VDB full form

What is the full form of VDB?

Answer : 

  • Ventilated Disc Brake

What does VDB mean?

When the brakes are applied, the brake pads or shoes pinch the disc so as to slow down the wheel but the heat caused by friction has to be lost so these discs are exposed to the air so that they can be cooled. 

Ventilated disc brakes are hollow with a plate on each side and the air enters the centre to cool the plates. 

Advantages and disadvantages of traction control

Traction control is the newest safety features comes in many vehicles nowadays. It uses a sensor to continuously detect the speed of each wheel. So here, this article gives an idea about traction control advantages and disadvantages. 

Advantages of traction control :

  • Traction control systems often use the same infrastructure as anti-lock brakes, which make it easier for the manufacturer to control direct installation traction.
  • Traction control systems present effective automatic control for snow and rain conditions so the main advantage is safety for weather conditions.
  • Customers of auto insurance can often receive a discount for traction control. 

Disadvantages of traction control :

  • Cost is high because of the high-functioning gear that's involved in traction control can make a car an increasingly expensive purchase. 
  • Cost of maintenance.
  • Traction control systems are not ideal for all kinds of situations so its use is limited.

Full Form of TC

What is the full form of TC?

Answer :

  • Traction Control

What does TC mean?

A traction control system, also known as ASR, is typically a secondary function of the electronic stability control on the motor vehicle, to prevent loss of traction of driven road wheels. 

It is activated when the throttle input and engine torque are mismatched to road surface conditions. 

It is designed to limit wheel slippage during acceleration, particularly on wet or icy roads.

CNG full form

What is the full form of CNG?

Answer :

  • Compressed Natural Gas

What does CNG mean?

CNG is mainly methane compressed at a pressure of 200 to 248 bars which can be used in place of gasoline, diesel fuel, and LPG gas too. 

Combustion of CNG produces fewer undesirable gases than the fuels mentioned above so it is more environment-friendly. 

4WD full form

What is the full form of 4WD?

Answer :

  • Four-Wheel Drive

What does 4WD mean?

In automobile language four-wheel drive vehicles such as a car, truck or any four-wheel automotive vehicle is called a 4WD vehicle. 

ESC full form

What is the full form of ESC?

Answer :

  • Electronic Stability Control

What does ESC mean?

ESC is a computerized technology that improves a vehicle's stability by detecting and reducing the loss of traction.

It works by using a number of intelligent sensors that detect any loss of control and apply the brake to the relevant wheel automatically, putting your car back on the intended path.

Kph full form

What is the full form of Kph?

Answer :

  • Kilometres per Hour

What does Kph mean?

Kp is a unit of speed expressing the numbers of kilometres travelled in one hour. 

CC full form

What is full form of CC?

Answer :

  • Cubic Capacity or Cubic centimetre

What does CC mean?

CC means commonly in short terms called engine capacity defines the volume of the cylinder of the vehicle between the piston TDC and BDC. 

CC is a unit of volume corresponds to 1 CC = 1 cm × 1 cm × 1 cm.

CCVTI full form

What is the full form of CCVTI?

Answer :

  • Controlled Combustion Variable Timing Ignition

What does CCVTI mean?

CCVTi has controlled an opening of valves and improved combustion which leads to small increase mileage and power. 

CCVTI is used by Indian two-wheeler manufacturer TVS for its promotion.

CVTI full form

What is the full form of CVTI?


  • Charged Motion Variable Time Ignition

What does CVTI mean?

CVTI technology developed and produced by TVS Motor is a design innovation optimises the air-fuel mixture in the cylinder with a unique combination of swirl and tumble motion generates a very pick up resulting in improved performance without negatively impacting mileage. 

LCV full form

What is the full form of LCV?

Answer :

  • Light Commercial Vehicle

What does LCV mean?

LCV term mostly used for commercial van for a commercial carrier vehicle with a gross vehicle weight of no more than 3.5 metric tonnes. 

The LCV concept was created as a compact truck and is usually optimised to be tough built, have low operating costs and fuel efficient powerful engines, and utilised in intra-city operations.

Pickup trucks, vans and three-wheelers all commercial goods or passenger carrier vehicles are called light commercial vehicle. 

HCV full form in automobiles

What is the full form of HCV?

Answer :

  • Heavy commercial vehicle

What does HCV mean?

HCV is a category of a commercial vehicle whose gross weight is more than 3500 kg.

ASFS full form

What is the full form of ASFS?

Answer :

  • Advanced Swirl Flow Induction System

What does ASFS mean?

ASFS is the technology similar to that of Bajaj Auto's DTSI technology that the air-fuel mixture creates swirl into the combustion chamber in the engine.

APDV full form

What is the full form of APDV?

Answer :

  • Advanced Pro Series Digital Variable Ignition System

What does APDV mean?

Hero MotoCorp has developed APDV technology is used in engine ignition systems, which offers better and efficient combustion of fuel, better pickup and mileage, and improving the burning of fuel. 

APDV means a combination of electronic ignition and electronic fuel management, the injection of the spark plugs is controlled digitally.  

What is sand Casting

Introduction of Sand Casting : 

In sand casting the metal is melted in the furnace and then poured into the cavity of a sand mould. sand casting is used to produce a wide variety of metal components with complex geometries. sand casting is also used to produce automobile components such as engine blocks, engine manifolds, cylinder head and transmission case.

Working process of Sand Casting : 

The process cycle for sand casting consist of six stages:

1. Mould Making

In-mould making creates the mould for casting. a sand mould is formed by packing sand into the mould. The sand is packed around the pattern, which is a replica of the external shape of the casting. When the pattern is removed, the cavity that will form the casting remains. The lubrication used on the surface of the mould cavity. The use of lubrication improves the surface finish of the casting. It used based on the sand and molten metal temperature.

2. Clamping 

In clamping prepared for the molten metal to be poured then the mould halves closed and securely together.

3. Pouring 

After the mould has been clamped the molten metal poured into the mould. Pouring can be performed manually or automatically. Enough molten metal must be poured to fill the entire cavity. The filling time is very short in order to prevent early solidification of any one part of the metal.

4. Cooling

The molten metal that is poured into the mould will begin to cool and solidify once it enters the cavity. When the entire cavity is filled and the molten metal solidifies, the final shape of the casting is formed. The mould can not be opened until the cooling time has elapsed. The desired cooling time can be estimated based upon the wall thickness of the casting and the temperature of the metal. Most of the possible defects that can occur are a result of the solidification process. If some of the molten metal cools too quickly, the part may exhibit shrinkage, cracks, or incomplete sections. 

5. Removal
The sand mould can simply be broken, and the casting removed. This step, sometimes called shakeout, is typically performed by a vibrating machine that shakes the sand and casting out of the flask. Once removed, the casting will likely have some sand and oxide layers adhered to the surface. Shot blasting is sometimes used to remove any remaining sand, from internal surfaces, and reduce the surface roughness.

6. Trimming

During cooling, the material from the channels in the mould solidifies attached to the part. This excess material must be trimmed from the casting either manually via cutting or sawing or using a trimming press. The time required to trim the excess material can be estimated from the size of the casting's envelope. A larger casting will require a longer trimming time.

When it used :
  • Non-symmetrical parts
  • Large parts 
  • More liberal tolerance 
  • Components with internal structure 

Advantages of CRDI system

Cars equipped with CRDI technology provide 25% more power and torque than the normal direct injection engine. There are some more advantages to cars with the use of CRDI system. Let us have a deep insight into the advantages provide by CRDI system in this article. 

Advantages of CDRI system : 

  • Improved power, increased fuel efficiency and reduced noise and vibration.
  • Doubling the torque at lower speeds.
  • Gives High efficiency due to variable injection time.
  • Gives better pulverization of fuel.
  • Increased combustion capacity.
  • Precise injection timing.
  • Very high injection pressure and better stability.
  • Increased combustion quality due to pilot and post-injection.
  • Reduced smoke, particulates and exhaust. 
  • Offers superior pickup.
  • Higher mileage.
  • Lower emission and fuel combustion.
The main disadvantages of this system is that increase the initial cost and the maintenance of the engine.

Detail of Technical Terms used in Auto mobile